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Life Communities 

lit University Students? 



§ w Rausch, SJ. 



36/1 • SPRING 2004 



THE SEMINAR ON JESUIT SPIRITUALITY 

The Seminar is composed of a number of Jesuits appointed from their provinces in the 
United States. 

It concerns itself with topics pertaining to the spiritual doctrine and practice of 
Jesuits, especially United States Jesuits, and communicates the results to the members of 
the provinces through its publication, STUDIES IN THE SPIRITUALITY OF JESUITS. This is 
done in the spirit of Vatican Li's recommendation that religious institutes recapture the 
original inspiration of their founders and adapt it to the circumstances of modern times. 
The Seminar welcomes reactions or comments in regard to the material that it publishes. 

The Seminar focuses its direct attention on the life and work of the Jesuits of 
the United States. The issues treated may be common also to Jesuits of other regions, to 
other priests, religious, and laity, to both men and women. Hence, the journal, while 
meant especially for American Jesuits, is not exclusively for them. Others who may find 
it helpful are cordially welcome to make use of it. 



CURRENT MEMBERS OF THE SEMINAR 

Robert L. Bireley, S.J., teaches history at Loyola University, Chicago, IL (2001). 
Richard A. Blake, S.J., is chairman of the Seminar and editor of STUDIES; he teaches 

film studies at Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (2002). 
Claudio M. Burgaleta, S.J., is executive director of Estudios Pastorales para la Nueva 

Evangelizacion, in Oceanside, NY (2002). 
Kevin Burke, S.J., teaches systematic theology at Weston Jesuit School of Theology, 

Cambridge, MA (2003). 
Gregory C. Chisholm, S.J., is administrator of Holy Name of Jesus Parish, in South 

Los Angeles, CA (2003). 
Lawrence J. Madden, S.J., directs the Georgetown Center for Liturgy, Washington, 

DC (2001). 
G. Ronald Murphy, S.J., teaches German language and literature at Georgetown 

University, Washington, DC (2001). 
Thomas P. Rausch, S.J., teaches theology at Loyola Marymount University, Los 

Angeles, CA (2002). 
Dennis C. Smolarski, S.J., teaches mathematics and computer science at Santa Clara 

University, Santa Clara, CA (2003). 

The opinions expressed in STUDIES are those of the individual authors thereof. 
Parentheses designate year of entry as a Seminar member. 

Copyright © 2003 and published by the Seminar on Jesuit Spirituality 

Publication Office Editorial Office 

Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits Faber House 

3601 Lindell Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63108 102 College Road 
(Tel. 314-977-7257; Fax 314-977-7263) Chestnut Hill, MA 02467-3841 

(E-mail ijs@slu.edu (Tel. 617-552-0860; Fax 617-552-0925) 

(E-mail flemingpb@bc.edu) 



Christian Life Communities 
for Jesuit University Students? 



Thomas P. Rausch, S.J. 



STUDIES in the spirituality OF JESUITS 

36/1 • SPRING 2004 



The first word . . . 



The "evil nun" has become a fixture in American Catholic mythology, ac- 
cording to Robert Orsi, a professor of the history of religion in America at 
Harvard and not to be confused with our own Les Orsy, the preeminent 
canonist at Georgetown. She reappears regularly in routines for stand-up 
comics who identify themselves as having been "raised Catholic" and even 
more regularly in tedious monologues delivered to expensive psychoanalysts 
by patients trying to figure out what they were raised as. According to the 
legend, she slapped us with brass-edged rulers, made us memorize Msgr. 
Muldoon's Morbid Manual of Mortal Sins, and filled our heads with stories of 
flying saints, bleeding statues, and terrible things that would happen to us in 
the afterlife if we dared giggle during the May crowning. She alone is held 
responsible for Catholic guilt, a malady that has great currency in an age 
grown scornful of ethical judgments about anything from genocide to reality 
television. The mythic character seems destined to achieve immortality in 
our collective psyche, according to Professor Orsi, as the parochial-school 
generation passes from the scene, and those who actually knew some nuns 
are replaced by Catholics whose familiarity is limited to The Sound of Music 
or Whoopi Goldberg's Sister Act. Untested by experience, the myth becomes 
the reality. 

This image, however, like most myths, does have some roots in the 
truth. Strange adult women, floating several inches above the ground (they 
seemed not to have feet), dressed in ominous black habits, smelling of 
talcum and clicking with huge rosary beads, intimidated children. So did 
other uniformed authority figures like doctors, policemen, and baseball 
players. Most of us, however, eventually grow up, with or without doing 
hard time on the couch. And with adulthood we gain the ability to look 
back on our teachers with some semblance of objectivity, if we want to. 
(Many Catholics don't want to; the evil-nun thesis enables them to blame 
their problems on someone else.) If the practice caught on, many Broadway 
shows, comics, and psychoanalysts might be put out of business. 

Although objectivity is not my strongest virtue, here's one reminis- 
cence from a pre-Vatican II pupil who attended two huge parochial schools 
in Brooklyn. No, I wasn't thrown out — another personal myth cultivated by 
many now-"enlightened" Catholics to show they never really bought into 
the system. My family moved a mere two blocks, but parish boundaries 
were sacrosanct in those days, so in the middle of fourth grade, I moved 
from the School Sisters of Notre Dame to the Sisters of Charity of Halifax. 
Little really changed, however. In the Catholic culture of the period, going 
to the parish school and having a nun as teacher were presumed, and it 



in 



made little difference if the headgear was round, square, or pointed. Sister 
was sister. If the "evil nun" was stalking the corridors in either school, she 
never bothered me. The second school was huge. It had four sections for 
each grade, with between forty and fifty children in each section, and of 
course each was taught by a nun. Some were veterans and grandmotherly; 
some were 20-year-olds fresh from the novitiate and more terrified of us 
than we were of them; some were a bit cranky, but being locked up all day 
with forty ten-year-olds would be enough to wilt the starchiest wimple on 
occasion. But teach us they did: from arithmetic to the beginnings of alge- 
bra, from block capitals to cursive script, from diagramming sentences to 
composition, from reading exercises to literature. 

Which brings me to Sister Frances, one of the truly great English 
teachers I encountered in what seemed at one time an endless (24-year) 
career of going to school. We parted company over fifty years ago when I 
left her eighth-grade classroom and went orT to the Jesuits at Brooklyn Prep. 
After all these years, we still keep in touch, more or less, by an occasional 
note or Christmas card. This year, her card contained this message: "The 
Sisters of Charity are no longer in the convent at OLA [Our Lady of Angels], 
did you know? The Franciscan Brothers have it as a retirement residence." 

A convent that once housed upwards of forty teaching sisters had 
become a retirement center for the brothers who lived in a house down the 
street and taught the boys in the upper grades several years after my gradua- 
tion. Now they needed the space for retired brothers. The news should not 
have come as a shock, but it did. It's a story repeated with such monoto- 
nous regularity in parishes around the country that most of the time it 
passes almost without notice. When it hits one's own parish, however, it 
cuts a little deeper into the psyche. Here in Boston, the archdiocese has 
begun a process that will probably lead to closing and combining some 
parishes. The reaction in the local media holds true to the predictable pat- 
tern: Most people concede that restructuring is necessary because of chang- 
ing demographics, fewer and older priests, and, as everyone in Boston 
knows, because of the financial pinch caused by settlements in the abuse 
scandals. Of course, adjustments should be made, all agree, but with the 
understanding that our parish or school will remain untouched. 

This theme with variation has been played repeatedly in Jesuit circles 
over the past few years. It might be more accurate to say decades, beginning 
at the time when we accepted the fact that the precipitous drop in vocations 
was not a temporary downward tic in the fall-out from the 1960s and the 
council, but a dramatic reorientation of American Catholic culture. If you 
want an imaginary test of the extent of the change, try to picture the reac- 
tion of your favorite niece when her son comes home from Dartmouth and 
announces he has changed his mind about law school or the MBA and would 
like to become a Benedictine monk. 

We'll leave it to sociologists to debate the etiology of the seculariza- 
tion that spread from Europe in the post-war period to North America in 



w 



the 1970s. In the meantime, we Jesuits go about our business trying to do 
our own restructuring of diminishing resources, fully aware that most of us 
harbor the belief and hope that the closings or transfers of responsibility to 
lay people will strike somewhere else, but not here in my parish, school, or 
retreat house. When the ax falls in our neighborhood, it hurts. Note the 
reference to Brooklyn Prep above. 

The normal reactions — depression, anger, fear, and guilt — are not 
terribly productive, or terribly Christian. Or very imaginative. Perhaps this 
steady decline in active clergy may be God's way of telling us that we've 
reached a point in the maturing of the Church in the United States when 
the laity is ready to carry the burden of its ministry. Sociologist Peter 
McDonough has described this downsizing and handing-over as a form of 
"decolonialization," when the imperial powers prepare to depart by trying to 
leave some of their values and institutions behind to guide the newly inde- 
pendent peoples. That's a melancholy take on the process that is undeniably 
well underway. It implies that we lament the passing of a golden age — a 
Jesuit raj, as it were — and hope that the natives, when they take over, can 
prolong the afterglow of the sun setting on the empire. If this analysis is 
accurate, and I'm sure it contains more than a grain of truth, then it doesn't 
speak too well of us and our detachment from earthly achievement. 

A distinction can be useful here. We have an institutional question 
and a spiritual one to deal with. Institutionally, we have done quite well in 
many instances in working with lay colleagues as peers, growing comfortable 
in our minority status and even accepting lay people in leadership positions. 
We can all point to successful programs for sharing the Ignatian charism, 
and we have been truly blessed with wonderful men and women who have 
come forward to fill roles once reserved to Jesuits. The spiritual question is 
whether we are altogether happy with this development or, in starker terms, 
or whether we are merely accommodating to an organizational inevitability. 
Do we embrace an age of lay men and women who help us live our faith 
and exercise ministry in a postclerical Church? Put in terms worthy of a 
fundamentalist: If God wanted a lot of priests and nuns, God would have 
provided them. Since God hasn't, then perhaps we might have to adjust to a 
redefinition of roles, humbly and gratefully rather than grudgingly. Maybe 
we should all go back to those expressions that seem so distant: "reading the 
signs of the times" or the Church defined as "the people of God." Parents 
can tell us how hard it is to "let go," but if the family is to prosper, the next 
generation must come into its own. And that's only one example of the 
spiritual wisdom we can gain from our lay companions in the faith. 

As we grouse over our declining numbers, it might be good to reread 
the first paragraph of decree 13 of GC 34. In its discussion of the "Church 
of the Laity" in the next millennium, which by the way is now the present 
millennium, it cites Lumen gentium to good effect: "The Society of Jesus 
acknowledges as a grace of our day and a hope for the future that the laity 
'take an active, conscientious and responsible part in the mission of the 



Church in this great moment of history.' " The decree, it must be noted, is 
entitled "Cooperation with the Laity in Mission," not "Having the Laity 
Cooperate with Us." It envisions leadership in ministry undertaken by lay 
people as lay people, not as paperback Jesuits. 

Leadership, whether clerical or lay, comes with a price tag. It de- 
mands preparation, dedication, and sacrifice. Tom Rausch's essay will help 
further our on-going conversation on this nest of questions about our rela- 
tionship to changing patterns of Catholic ministry. Many of us belonged to 
school sodalities as students, and although we know that they reinvented 
themselves as "Christian Life Communities," we may have lost contact with 
them. These groups have a long affiliation with the Jesuits and for centuries 
helped lay men and women develop their own personal spirituality and 
commitment to ministry. In an age when lay Catholics are assuming greater 
responsibility for the work of the Church here and now, a look at the Chris- 
tian Life Communities will be rewarding. Tom has pulled a great deal of 
material together for this monograph, but perhaps readers would like to add 
their own experiences and reflections in the form of letters for a subsequent 
issue. 

A few second words . . . 

► STUDIES is now a quarterly, for reasons we explained last September. 
Observant readers will have noticed that this issue is designated by "Spring" 
rather than "January." Paying subscribers, all three of them, will receive five 
issues for their last subscription* and then four. Inquiries should be directed 
to the business office in St. Louis. 

► STUDIES has gone electronic. Current issues are now available on the 
website of the Jesuit Conference in Washington. Gradually, back issues will 
be added to the archive. We hope this will enable us to make this series 
available to a wider readership. To track our progress with the project, go to 
the Conference website (Jesuit.org) and follow the prompts through "Publi- 
cations." Many thanks to Father Tom Widner and Marcus Bleech for get- 
ting us up and running. 

► The Jesuit Seminar has been quite productive in the past months. 
Cambridge University Press has recently released Bob Bireley's new book, 
The Jesuits and the Thirty Years War: Kings, Courts and Confessors. The Liturgi- 
cal Press has just published Tom Rausch's new book, Who Is Jesus? An Intro- 
duction to Christology. Congratulations to the authors! 



Richard A. Blake, S.J. 

Editor 



VI 



CONTENTS 

Introduction 1 

A Personal Reflection 4 

The Origin of the Sodality Movement 5 

The Medieval Confraternities 6 

The Marian Congregations 9 

First Period: 1540-1773 12 

Second Period: 1773-1948 16 

Third Period: 1964-1967 18 

Fourth Period: 1967 to the Present 19 

Christian Life Community' 20 

From Marian Congregations to Christian Life Community 20 

" General Principles' 7 22 

Spirituality 22 

Community 23 

Mission 24 

CLCs on the Campus 24 

The Weekly Meeting 27 

Typical Meetings 27 

Respecting the Process 28 

Student Comments 29 

Challenges 30 

Support or Faith-Sharing Group 30 

Prayer and Ignatian Spirituality 31 

Forming Student Guides 32 

Attracting and Keeping Men 33 

Membership 35 

Christian Life Community and the 

Society of Jesus Today 35 



vu 





NOTICE 
TO OUR READERS 



Beginning with this volume and 
this issue, Studies will appear 
four times a year instead of five 
times, as has been the case 
hitherto. 






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Thomas P. Rausch, S.J., Ph.D. in religion from Duke 
University (1976), is the T. Marie Chilton Professor of 
Catholic Theology at Loyola Marymount University in 
Los Angeles. A specialist in the areas of ecclesiology, 
ecumenism, and the theology of the priesthood, he 
has published 10 books and over 170 articles, book 
chapters, and reviews. From 1981 to 1985 Father 
Rausch served as director of Campus Ministry at LMU. 
In 1983-84 he was appointed by the Secretariat for 
Christian Unity as Catholic Tutor to the Ecumenical 
Institute, the World Council of Churches study center 
at Bossey, Switzerland. He was rector of the Jesuit 
community at Loyola Marymount from 1988 to 1994 
and chair of the Department of Theological Studies 
from 1994 to 2002. His recent books include the 
award-winning Catholicism at the Dawn of the Third 
Millennium (1996) and Who Is Jesus? An Introduction to 
Christology (2004). 



Christian Life Communities 
for Jesuit University Students? 



Medieval confraternities have passed through several 
transformations through the centuries. One such 
organization was the Sodality of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary, which had a long association with the Society of 
Jesus, surviving even during the Suppression. Now 
known as Christian Life Communities, these associations 
provide a form of spiritual growth for contemporary 
Catholics, but do they respond to the needs of today's 
university students? 



Introduction 

One of the phenomena of the last twenty-five years has been 
the emergence of small Christian communities. The com- 
munidades de base or basic Christian communities (BCCs) of 
Latin America were perhaps the first expression of this impulse. 
Gathering neighbors regularly for prayer and reflection on the Bible, 
fellowship, and social outreach, the BCCs played an important role in 
the re-evangelization of Christians in Latin America. 1 In the 1970s 
and 1980s they were hailed as a new way of "being church." 2 A 
similar movement in the United States saw parishioners gathering 



See Alvaro Barreiro, Basic Ecclesial Communities: The Evangelization of the Poor 
(Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis, 1982). 

2 

Karl Rahner made this point in 1974 in The Shape of the Church to Come (New 
York: Seabury Press, 1974), 108-18; see also Leonardo Boff, Ecclesiogenesis: The Base 
Communities Reinvent the Church (Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis, 1986; first published in 1977); 
Julio de Santa Ana, "Schools of Sharing: Basic Ecclesial Communities," The Ecumenical 
Review 38 (1986): 381. 

2 



2 <$> Thomas P. Rausch, S.J. 



into small faith-sharing communities, many of them influenced by 
the RENEW movement. Some like Arthur Baranowski, a priest of the 
Archdiocese of Detroit, saw small communities as a way of restruc- 
turing parishes. 3 

Today the enthusiasm for BCCs seems to have diminished, and 
there are no signs that the parish as the local ecclesial community is 
going to wither away. Indeed, many parish communities are flour- 
ishing. 4 But it remains true that many Catholic Christians find their 
large parishes too impersonal, unable to meet their desire for a 
deeper sense of community and a more intimate experience of faith, 
and so many pastors and parish ministers are seeking to provide 
smaller faith-sharing groups within the larger parish community. 
According to Bernard Lee, there are minimally 37,000 small Christian 
communities (SCCs) in the Catholic Church in the United States, and 
somewhere between 75,000 and 1,000,000 adults and children in- 
volved. 5 These groups are known by different names — small Chris- 
tian communities, small church communities, house churches, 
communities of faith, faith-sharing groups, and so on. But what they 
have in common is that these small Christian communities are 
"places where Catholics make Catholic meaning together from which 
they choose to live their lives/' 6 

Lee's survey acknowledges that young adults were not found 
in significant numbers in the main body of small Christian communi- 
ties studied, an issue addressed in an appendix. 7 When his research- 
ers focused on college campuses with the help of the National Office 
of Catholic Campus Ministers in Dayton, they estimated that "there 
were somewhere between 540 and 900 SCCs on 160 to 250 college 
campuses" during the time of their study (1995-98), with somewhere 
between 14,580 and 24,300 students involved. 8 



Arthur Baranowski, Creating Small Faith Communities: A Plan for Restructuring 
the Parish and Renewing Catholic Life (Cincinnati: St. Anthony Messenger Press, 1988). 

See Paul Wilkes, Excellent Catholic Parishes (New York: Paulist, 2001). 

Bernard J. Lee, The Catholic Experience of Small Christian Communities (New 
York; Paulist, 2000), 74. On p. 164 Lee provides a list of organizations supporting 
small faith communities. 

6 Ibid., 6. 

7 William V. D'Antonio, "Appendix I: College and University Campus 
Communities," in Lee, Catholic Experience, 148. 

8 Ibid., 149. 



CLCs for Jesuit University Students? <0> 3 



Given the transitory character of university life, it is difficult to 
develop stable small Christian communities on college campuses. But 
many young adults and college students find a need for such 
groups, perhaps even more so than do adults. They often find it 
difficult to relate to their parish communities. As one young adult 
cited by D'Antonio commented, "Small faith communities make a 
difference because I come from a church that's enormous and the 
pastor doesn't know my name and will never know my name. My 
parents have switched back and forth between two parishes based 
on which one is more convenient to get to on Sunday morning. It's 
not a community." 9 This suggests that it is precisely community that 
many young adults are searching for. And they are looking for ways 
to explore their faith with their peers in a way that is not encour- 
aged by the extroversion of campus life and the secular culture that 
surrounds them. Ironically, the Society of Jesus has sponsored such 
communities for young adults for over 400 years and they continue 
to flourish today, though not on the same scale as earlier. 

In this essay I would like to look at the Jesuit-sponsored 

Christian Life Community, particularly among university students, as 

a contemporary movement with enormous potential in the Church. 

We will begin by looking at the 

prehistory of the Marian Congre- —-— — — _^__ 

gations in the medieval confrater- „ bofh nfnats wm g j 

nities and consider the rich history r , ., . . , 

e , , .. , J wcusea on the sixth 

of the Sodality movement in the , xT , 

, . , * L * n > r t commandment, they also 

history of the Society of Jesus. . A , ' u 
r, J J communicated to us a sense 

From a more contemporary per- , , . , 

spective, we will look at the trans- °f a lo ™%™ d 

formation of the Marian Congre- compassionate God. 

gations into Christian Life Com- _^_^^_—^^^^^_ 
munities (CLCs). Then we will look 

more closely at CLCs and various challenges to their success on Jesuit 
university campuses. While some of these are flourishing, CLC in the 
United States has not generally generated the enthusiasm previously 
enjoyed by the Sodality. In the conclusion I'd like to raise some 
questions about the place of CLC in the contemporary Society, partic- 
ularly in the United States. 



9 Ibid., 160. 



4 ^ Thomas P. Rausch, S.J. 

A Personal Reflection 

When I reflect on my first encounter with the Jesuits when I 
was a boy at Loyola High School in Los Angeles, my 
memories of how their spirituality impacted on me as a 
student are fuzzy and vague. We learned from the beginning to put 
AMDG at the top of our papers, and had a sense for the magis in that 
motto. We went to Mass as a class on First Fridays and had the 
opportunity for weekly confession. I was invited to take part in the 
Summer School of Catholic Action, the work of Father Daniel Lord, 
S.J. In my junior and senior years we went on a weekend retreat at 
a local Jesuit retreat house. If both retreats were strongly focused on 
the sixth commandment, they also communicated to us a sense of a 
loving and compassionate God. It was a liberating message. 

And I was a member of the Sodality of Our Lady. Those 
memories too are dim. I remember that we were encouraged to a 
more active life of prayer and made some kind of probation. The 

emphasis was on devotion, not 

" ■— — — — — Ignatian spirituality. In an article 
Nor were these Jesuit confra- on high-school sodalities during 
ternities, though they had this period Tennant Wright, S.J., 

their own character, some- captures this lack of a clear focus: 

thing entirely new. They He remembers "that there were 

grew out of a movement that man Y members like myself, many 
traced its roots back as jar as who belonged to the Sodality in 
the Devotio Moderna in the name onl ^ who neither lived the 

fourteenth century. S ° dalit y wa y °* life " or knew 

what it was all about. There were 

— ^ ^— ^— literally hundreds of us in this So- 
dality. But about the interior life, 
the lay apostolate — the backbone of Catholic Action — we knew 
virtually nothing/' 10 Of course these were high-school sodalities. 

Two memories stand out from the shadows of the past with 
special clarity. One was a morning-meditation group in my junior 
year, led by a scholastic whose memory I venerate to this day. He 
was a veteran from World War II who carried in his face and body 



1 Tennant C. Wright, "The Sodality in America: 1957/' America, November 2, 



1957, 134. 



CLCs for Jesuit University Students? <0> 5 



the scars of his combat experience as well as other, less public 
wounds which later led him to leave the Society as a priest. In those 
happier days, he gathered us early before our first morning class and 
led us in guided meditations, using a popular little book called My 
Daily Bread by Anthony Paone, S.J. It was my first experience of 
contemplative prayer. The other was a Christmas food drive in my 
senior year sponsored by the sodalities at all our province high 
schools. I remember it as a wonderful time in my year when several 
of us, out of school for the morning, called on warehouses and truck 
depots in downtown Los Angeles begging damaged canned goods 
and returned to the campus with quite a haul for the collection. It 
was my introduction to the service of the poor that would become 
so important in Jesuit ministries. I know Sodality members at other 
province high schools taught catechism, visited the elderly in conva- 
lescent homes, and were involved in other forms of outreach. 

When I moved on to Santa Clara University in 1959, I joined 
the Sodality there. Again the spirituality was mainly devotional; we 
were supposed to go to Mass and Communion frequently and had a 
sense that we were committing ourselves to a permanent way of life. 
For service we formed a schola to lead the congregation in song at 
the Sunday student Mass in those days before campus ministry. We 
were formally accepted with an act of consecration to Mary, receiv- 
ing in a ceremony a medallion with the Sodality emblem, suspended 
from a blue ribbon. My fellow Sodality members and I knew that we 
were part of a larger movement, sponsored by the Jesuit fathers in 
their schools. But few of us were really aware that we were part of a 
movement whose roots went back to the very beginnings of the 
Society, just as I suspect few of those in our Christian Life Commu- 
nities (CLCs) today, at least on the university level, are aware that 
they are part of a world community. 

The Origin of the Sodality Movement 

The first Marian Congregation was established by a young 
Belgian Jesuit, Father Jean Leunis, in 1563 in Rome, when he began 
to gather into a group some of the more outstanding students of the 
Roman College. John O'Malley, S.J., cites a letter from Rome to the 
whole Society (July 14, 1564) describing Leunis's group; it consisted 
of boys from the college in their early teens who under the patron- 
age of the Virgin Mary pledged themselves to a number of exercises 



6 <0> Thomas P. Rausch, S.J. 



of piety which included daily Mass, weekly confession, monthly 
Communion, a half-hour meditation each day, and a commitment to 
"serve to the poor/ 7 The Marian Congregation, the usual name, 
based on the Latin congregatio, or Sodality of Our Lady as it would 
be known in English-speaking countries, would be directed by "one 
of the Fathers" and would have a "prefect" elected from among the 
"older and wiser" boys. 11 

Leunis's congregation was not the first Jesuit congregation. 
That honor may go to Pierre Favre, who in 1539 or 1540 founded a 
"confraternity" in Parma that gathered both priests and laymen for a 
more intense life of prayer and works of charity. And there were 
others as well. Nor were these Jesuit confraternities, though they 
had their own character, something entirely new. They grew out of 
a movement that traced its roots back as far as the Devotio Moderna 
in the fourteenth century. 

The Medieval Confraternities 

This movement, influenced by a new emphasis on the human- 
ity of Jesus and stressing the religious role of the individual, 
gathered lay people into voluntary associations or confraterni- 
ties. Most were all-male groups, though some included women and 
others were exclusively for women. While the confraternities often 
included clerics or were entirely clerical in membership, from the 
beginning they offered to laypeople a way to live a more intense 
devotional life and to take an active part in the Church's ministry to 
the world, particularly to the poor. 12 In English they are referred to 
as fraternities, confraternities, sodalities, brotherhoods, and compa- 
nies. 13 They should also be distinguished from the third orders 



John W. O'Malley, The First Jesuits (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University 
Press, 1993), 197-98; we will use both names for the congregations. 

12 

See, for example, Christopher F. Black, Italian Confraternities in the Sixteenth 
Century (Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press, 1989); Maureen Flynn, 
Sacred Charity: Confraternities and Social Welfare in Spain, 1400-1700 (Ithaca, N.Y.: 
Cornell University Press, 1989); John Patrick Donnelly and Michael W. Maher, eds., 
Confraternities and Catholic Reform, in Italy, France, and Spain, Sixteenth Century 
Essays and Studies, vol. 44 (Kirksville, Mo.: Thomas Jefferson University Press, 1999). 

13 

In Italian they were most commonly identified as confraternita and compagnia 
(Black, Italian Confraternities, 23); in n. 2 on that page, he observes that the 1917 Code 



CLCs for Jesuit University Students? <> 7 



affiliated with the mendicant orders and with guilds, craft or trade 
associations that often had their own confraternities. 

By the fourteenth century the Dominicans and Franciscans 
had extended confraternities throughout much of Italy and France, 
and they continued to grow in the fifteenth, particularly in Spain. 
Valladolid had at least 100 confraternities by the second half of the 
sixteenth century; Toledo 143, and Zamora with a much smaller 
population had 150. Florence had 75, Lyon 68, Liibeck in northern 
Europe had at least 67, and Hamburg at the beginning of the Refor- 
mation 99. 14 It has been estimated 
that "nearly every sizable village ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^— 

and parish throughout Italy had at Nevertheless, for much of 

least one confraternity. ., . , . , ., *. , 

J their history the medieval 

The piety of confraternities confraternities provided 

played a major role in the devel- multiple opportunities for lay 
opment of the Church's devotional leadership and what we to- 

life in the late middle ages. In an day call lay ministry, much 

era when parish priests were not of it taking place outside the 
required to say daily Mass, most parish structure. 

celebrated only once or twice a ^___^_^___ b ^^^^^^^_ 
week for their communities. "It 

was rather the confraternities, with their private oaths to observe 
masses on holidays and on the anniversaries of members' deaths, 
that had taken the initiative to institute and attend regular eucharis- 
tic celebrations/ 716 Much of their piety came from their sponsoring 
religious orders. The Dominicans favored rosary confraternities and 
promoted Marian confraternities long before the Jesuits. The Francis- 
cans promoted penitential confraternities in which members 
scourged themselves, sometimes in public, a practice that became 
especially popular in Spain. The Capuchins continued this tradition, 
but also encouraged Eucharistic devotion. 



of Canon Law distinguished between pious unions (established for works of charity), 
sodalities (constituted as organic bodies), and confraternities (organic bodies 
established for the increase of public worship). 

Flynn, Sacred Charity, 16-17. 

15 

Black, Italian Confraternities, 50. 
Flynn, Sacred Charity, 117. 



8 <0> Thomas P. Rausch, S.J. 



All the confraternities encouraged brotherhood and mutual 
solidarity. Some forbade suits against other members of the confra- 
ternity. Feast days were celebrated with special Masses and proces- 
sions, often exhibiting the relics of their patron saints. At least once a 
year members gathered for a banquet or communal meal. They 
prayed for each other at Mass and took pains to be present at the 
deathbed of one of their members; they were required by their 
statutes to accompany the deceased to their place of burial carrying 
candles or wearing hooded robes. Noting that it was common to see 
hooded brothers escorting a body to the cemetery, Christopher Black 
calls attention to Filippo Lippi's Virgin and Child with Sts. Jerome and 
Dominic and Bronzino's Madonna and Child, St. John the Baptist, and St. 
Anne [or St. Elizabeth], both of which show hooded figures involved 
in funerals. 17 Departed members were to be remembered in prayer 
and there was increasing attention to the souls in purgatory. Proces- 
sions, elaborate plays, sacre rappresentazioni of the mysteries of the life 
of Jesus, and pilgrimages were among the more public manifesta- 
tions of the confraternities' piety. In this way the confraternities 
played an important role in bringing popular religion into the 
institutional life of the Church. 18 

In an age when civic assistance to the disadvantaged was 
minimal, if present at all, the confraternities took on various minis- 
tries to the poor. The scarce resources of many fraternities meant 
that they were limited in the kind of aid they could offer; "[c]hild- 
ren, vulnerable females, whether young or old, and the sick" were 
preferred objects of charity. 19 Confraternities tried to provide dowries 
for poor girls, even those not related to confraternity members. Some 
ran refuges for at-risk women — the poor, deserted wives, prostitutes 
and their daughters — and orphanages for abandoned children. They 
contributed to the building and support of hospitals, sometimes 
sponsoring them or assisting as supervisors and part-time nurses. 
Some provided hospitality to pilgrims and travelers. Alms giving was 
always encouraged. Others specialized in helping prisoners or in 
burying those who died without resources. In this way the charitable 
works of the confraternities provided a safety net for the most 
vulnerable of society, though of course it was a limited one. 



17 

Black, Italian Confraternities, 105. 
Cf. Flynn, Sacred Charity, 5. 

19 

Black, Italian Confraternities, 168. 



CLCs for Jesuit University Students? <0> 9 



By the time of the Reformation their zeal for the disadvan- 
taged seems to have faded. In his " Appeal to the Ruling Class" of 
Germany, Luther called for abolishing confraternities, along with 
other ecclesiastical practices like celibacy, mendicancy, and festival 
days. Though he recognized that a 

fraternity might be dedicated to ^^^^_^^^_^__^^^^^_ 
social relief, he argued, "At pres- 
ent .. . their privileges only lead The first sodality in North 
to gluttony and drunkenness." 20 America (1653), the "Huron 
Nevertheless, for much of their Sodality/' was a gathering of 
history the medieval confraterni- Native Americans that 
ties provided multiple opportuni- included both men and 
ties for lay leadership and what women. Other Jesuit 
we today call lay ministry, much missionaries established 
of it taking place outside the par- sodalities in Japan, China, 
ish structure. "In these voluntary and among the Indians of 
associations, laymen and lay- Paraguay and Ecuador 
women ministered to one an- before the end of the 
other's needs, hired chaplains for sixteenth century. 
strictly sacramental functions, and 

often organized themselves into ~^^^^^^^ — ~— -^~^~-" 
centers for the poor and needy." 21 

This was the world of lay involvement through confraternities that 
the Jesuits were to enter shortly after their founding and in some 
ways take over, particularly through their colleges. 



T 



The Marian Congregations 

he Jesuits established relationships with existing confraterni- 
ties from the earliest days of the Society. 22 The confraternity 
founded by Pierre Favre in Parma in 1539-40 was one of the 



20 

Martin Luther, "An Appeal to the Ruling Class of German Nationality as to 
the Amelioration of the State of Christendom," no. 23; See Martin Luther: Selections 
from His Writings, ed. John Dillenberger (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1961), 463. I 
am grateful to Robert L. Bireley, S.J., for bringing this to my attention. 

21 

John O'Malley, "The Council of Trent in Ecumenical Perspective," Seattle 
Theology and Ministry Review 2 (2002): 58. 

22 O'Malley, First Jesuits, 193. 



10 <0> Thomas P. Rausch, SJ. 



first that was Jesuit initiated. Others followed, at Goa and Messina in 
1552, in Valencia in 1554, and in Seville in 1555. Their members 
committed themselves to a rule of life (vivendi formula), frequent 
Communion, and works of charity — assisting the poor, volunteering 
in hospitals, burying the dead. In Japan, confr arias were established 
shortly after the Jesuits arrived; in the long years of persecution and 
isolation they functioned as underground cells of Japanese Chris- 
tians, sustaining their faith, while their leaders acted as lay pastors. 23 
Initially Ignatius refused to allow Jesuits to serve as advisors to the 
confraternities, lest their mobility be compromised, though this was 
to change in the centuries that followed. This policy of encouraging 
lay leadership "also indicated that the Jesuits believed the laity fully 
capable of managing on their own." 24 

As the Jesuits began establishing colleges, the confraternity 
system, not new to universities, offered a tested means to organize 
and foster the spiritual life of their students. But it was Jan Leunis's 
"Marian Congregation," established at the Roman College in 1563 
under the patronage of the Virgin Mary, which was to set the 
pattern for the future. Leunis encouraged his students to regular 
prayer, the sacraments of penance and Eucharist, and practical 
charity. He later established other Marian Congregations at Paris, 
Billom, Lyons, and Avignon. 

From the beginning, the Marian Congregations represented a 
largely lay movement. According to Louis Paulussen, the early 
documents from the sixteenth century resemble more closely the 
teaching of Vatican II on the lay vocation in the Church than the 
rules of 1910, largely responsible for the typical image of the move- 
ment in the twentieth century. 25 Each Congregation has a "prefect/ 7 
or president, a member of the group, as well as a Jesuit advisor, 
usually called simply "father" in the documents. It was only in the 
rules of 1910 that the word "director" was introduced, a move that 
in Paulussen's view was alien to the thinking of Leunis and Father 



23 

See Neil S. Fujita, Japans Encounter with Christianity: The Catholic Mission in 
Pre-modern Japan (New York: Paulist, 1991), 168-71. 

^O'Malley, First Jesuits, 194. 

Louis Paulussen, S.J., "God Works like That: Origins of the Christian Life 
Community," Progressio, Supplement 14 (June 1979), 18. 



CLCs for Jesuit University Students? <0> 1 1 



General Claudio Aquaviva, who prepared the "Common Rules of 
1587." 26 

Since the first Jesuits themselves had been university students, 

it is not surprising that their expanding network of colleges played 

an important role in the multiplication and spread of the Marian 

Congregations, though it was also true that a flourishing sodality 

often led to the establishment of a college or some other work. 

Graduates of Jesuit colleges established sodalities in Peru (1571) and 

Mexico (1574). By 1575 all the colleges of the University of Paris had 

sodalities, one of which chose 

Francis de Sales, then a student, as ^ ^^— ^— 

prefect. Edmund Campion found- whm fl . - rf wag 

ed one in the college at Prague m 1 £ , 7 n *• 

„ -__ i i ^ £ . . ? i chosen for the Congregation 

1575, while Peter Canisius found- /,, „ . ?, '. 

, , ,., ,i tt • - L c of the Annunciation in 

ed a sodality at the University of . , . „„„ ,, 

T i i ji • -icrrrr j i.u Antwerp in 1590. there was a 

Ingolstadt in 1577 and another at „..,.„ T 

Fribourg in 1582. By 1576 there mini-revolution on the part 

were 30,000 students in sodalities °f the cler SV' 

at the Jesuit colleges of Europe. 27 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^«^ 
Father Francis Coster, founder of 

the sodality at Cologne (1575), was to play a major role in the spread 
of the movement. As provincial of Cologne, he saw to the establish- 
ing of the sodality in all the colleges of his province: Mainz, Wurz- 
burg, Spire, Heiligenstadt, Trier, Molsheim, Koblenz, and Paderborn. 
In 1597 Henry Fitz-Simon, missioned to Ireland at his own request, 
began establishing sodalities there. The first sodality in North Amer- 
ica (1653), the "Huron Sodality, ,/ was a gathering of Native Ameri- 
cans that included both men and women. 28 Other Jesuit missionaries 
established sodalities in Japan, China, and among the Indians of 
Paraguay and Ecuador before the end of the sixteenth century. 

In 1584 Pope Gregory XIII issued Omnipotentis Dei, a bull 
recognizing Leunis's Sodality in Rome as the Prima primaria, the 
Primary Congregation, to which other confraternities were to be 



26 Ibid, 18-19. 

27 

William V. Bangert, A History of the Society of Jesus (St. Louis: The Institute of 
Jesuit Sources, 1972), 57. 

TO 

F. X. Talbot, "The Huron Sodality of 1653," Woodstock Letters 82, no. 4 (1953): 
335-60; also Francis K. Drolet, New Communities for Christians (Staten Island, N.Y.: 
Alba House, 1972), 370. 



12 <> Thomas P. Rausch, SJ. 

''aggregated/' 29 The Jesuits now had their own confraternity, first for 
students in their schools, and later for adults associated with their 
ministries. In 1587 Father General Aquaviva revised the "Common 
Rules" of the Prima primaria, which became the standard for all 
future congregations. The leadership of the congregations was now 
clericalized. Jesuits were to be their advisors, appointed by the 
superior of the college or house, without consultation with the 
congregation members. 

Father Emile Villaret divided his history of the sodalities into 
three periods. First, from the founding of the Society of Jesus in 1540 
to its suppression in 1773; second, from the Suppression to 1948; and 
third, from 1948, marked by the publication of the apostolic constitu- 
tion Bis saeculari, declaring the Sodality as "Catholic Action," what we 
would call today an expression of the lay apostolate. 30 To this we 
should add a fourth period, beginning in 1967 when the Sodalities of 
Our Lady were reconstituted as the Christian Life Community. 

First Period: 1540-1773 

The Marian Congregations were generally associations of men. 
These sodales (companions, associates) were originally mixed groups 
that included young and old, merchants and artisans, jurists and 
physicians, nobles and clerics. A military sodality in Paraguay con- 
sisted of soldiers of different ranks; prefects were usually sergeants 
major, though once a general was elected. Addressing one another 
as "brother" was common. These companions often worked together 
with the Jesuits as a team. But the apparent egalitarianism of the 
movement was not without its own problems. When a lay prefect 
was chosen for the Congregation of the Annunciation in Antwerp in 
1590, there was a "mini-revolution" on the part of the clergy. As 
Chatellier asks, "How could the clergy be submitted to laymen in 
matters of piety and edification?" 31 Some of the first sodalities also 



29 

See Elder Mullan, "Documents," pt. 2 of The Sodality of Our Lady: Studied in 
the Documents (New York: P. J. Kennedy, 1912), 5-11. 

■in 

Louis Paulussen, Introduction to Abridged History of the Sodalities of Our Lady, 
by Emile Villaret, trans. William J. Young (St. Louis, Mo.: The Queen's Work, 1957), 
12-13; see Villaret's Les Congregations mariales (Paris: Beau Chesne, 1947). 

31 

Louis Chatellier, "The Europe of the Devout," in Le Livre de la Compaignie, 
dest-a-dire les Cinq Livres des institutions chrestiennes, dressees pour X usage de la Confrerie 
de la tres-heureuse Vierge Marie, mis en franqais du latin de Franqois Coster, by Francois 



CLCs for Jesuit University Students? <$> 13 



included women. At Fribourg, Peter Canisius welcomed them, but 
later under Claudio Aquaviva, they were excluded and congrega- 
tions of women were forbidden. 32 Thus, towards the end of the 
sixteenth century the social and sexual stratification of Europe began 
to reassert itself, with congregations dividing and reorganizing on 
the basis of profession and status, while congregations of women 
were no longer to be supported. 

Particularly after 1587, when Pope Sixtus V exempted the 
Society from the canonical prohibition of several distinct sodalities in 
a single place, specialized sodalities began to multiply. Soon there 
were sodalities for working men, 

artisans, magistrates, gentlemen ^ ^^^^— 
and nobles, merchants, even do- [The Marim Congregations] 

mestic servants, prisoners, and ,. j * ±1 

„ . ' r , ' continued many of the 

slaves. Beyond those for students . , . * xf 

.. ' -ill social services of the 

in the colleges, many included ,. 1 , ' 

.. . , \, medieval confraternities, 

those preparing for the priest- f M . / , . ' 

ii i L volunteering in hospitals. 

hood, or were reserved for priests; . e d , % \ ' 

in a period when the seminary caring for the sick, and 

system had not yet been fully es- mstttn 8 V™oners. 

tablished, these congregations The y tau 8 ht catechism and 

helped to form priests in the spirit Christian doctrine to children 
of the Council of Trent. Sodalities and uninstructed adults 

of lawyers took up legal assistance and prepared them 

for the indigent. In Antwerp the f° r tn ^ sacraments. 

artist Reubens served seventeen ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
years as secretary of the Latin So- 
dality. Sodalities of nobles included members of the growing middle 
class, the clergy, and magistrates. A sodality at Dillingen included 
students from thirty-five different religious orders. 

The Marian Congregations played an important part in the 
Counter-Reformation, combining works of piety with an active 
charity. Their members were encouraged to frequent reception of 
Communion and the sacrament of penance. 33 They continued many 



Coster (Antwerp, 1599), 11. 
32 Ibid., 17. 



33 

Michael W. Maher, "How the Jesuits Used Their Congregations to Promote 
Frequent Communion," in Donnelly and Maher, Confraternities and Catholic Reform, 
75-95. 



14 ^ Thomas P. Rausch, S.J. 



of the social services of the medieval confraternities, volunteering in 
hospitals, caring for the sick, and visiting prisoners. They taught 
catechism and Christian doctrine to children and uninstructed adults 
and prepared them for the sacraments. They labored to bring back 
to the Catholic Church those who had become Protestant, or to 
protect Catholics from Protestant harassment. One common work 
was bringing the poor to a special Mass; another was distributing 
tracts and books of piety. In England some lost their lives for this. 
Antwerp, once Protestant, again became Catholic. Congregation 
members assisted missionaries, particularly in Japan. Again, like their 
predecessors, they accompanied the dying and buried the dead. 

Father Coster had much to do with developing the spirituality 
of the movement. His Libellus Sodalitatis, a guidebook written for his 
congregations, became the basis for a succession of handbooks down 
to the twentieth century. It includes the following act of consecra- 
tion: 

Holy Mary Mother of God and Virgin, I . . . choose you today for 
Lady and Mistress, Patron and Advocate, and I order and propose 
with all my heart, never to forsake you, and never so to say or do 
that by my deeds anything should be done against your honour; I 
beseech you therefore most lovingly that it should please you to 
receive me as your perpetual servant, to assist me in all my actions, 
and not to abandon me at the hour of death. So be it. 34 

This practice of a consecration to the Blessed Virgin, not originally 
part of the rules, gradually became universal. As a minimum, soda- 
lists were expected to make a weekly confession and monthly 
Communion. When festivals of Christ and our Lady, also Commu- 
nion days, were added in, sodalists received Communion much 
more frequently than most Catholics of their time. Their piety 
appears to us today as overly legalistic, with its repetition of prayers, 
minute scheduling of time, cataloguing of good works, examination 
of sins, obsession with purity, and physical penances. Many sodali- 
ties adopted the long-established tradition of penitential processions, 
particularly during Holy Week. Father Villaret describes the students 
at Puy-en-Velay in France processing from church to church in the 
city, dressed only in hair-shirts or heavy cloths, their shoulders bare 
which they scourged until they bled. But there were also other, 



Cited by Chatellier, "Europe of the Devout," 6. 



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more joyous occasions. In his book on the Jesuits, M. Gaetan Berno- 
ville described the elaborate celebration of feast days: 

Those of the Sodality of the College of La Fleche were renowned: 
hymns, vespers, processions, high pontifical Masses, meetings and 
literary expositions, theatrical plays, pastorals, illuminations . . . 
succeeded each other for several days. In one of these processions 
1,250 externs were counted, 250 boarders, 200 Sodalists with penants 
[sic], banners, standards, followed by ecclesiastics and religious of 
different Orders, civic authorities to make, and preceded by a band 
to stir up 20 parishes. 35 

These celebrations sometimes got carried away. The provincial of 
Portugal outlawed horse races on feast days in 1618, while the 
provincial of Lyons tried to curtail the elaborate decorations of 
churches that required building elaborate scaffoldings reaching to 
the high church vaults. 

For sodalists the day was to end with an examination of 
conscience, not unlike that of the Jesuits themselves. Father Coster 
outlined a five-step method, based on the Spiritual Exercises: thank- 
ing God for blessings received, prayer for a detestation of sins, 
minute examination of the day, prayer for pardon, and firm resolve 
to correct one's transgressions. 36 While the Spiritual Exercises were 
originally given only to priests and theologians, by the beginning of 
the seventeenth century they were being adapted for lay people and 
were soon a basic part of sodality life. 

The very success of the Marian Congregations occasioned 
some criticism. The fact that sodalists frequently gathered in Jesuit 
chapels for liturgies rather than in their parish churches resulted in 
conflicts between the Jesuits and local ordinaries, particularly in 
France. While they provided social care for the poor and suffering, 
particularly the sick, prisoners, galley slaves, and prostitutes, it has 
sometimes been alleged that they were at least complicit with the 
move in the 1650s to confine the poor in general hospitals. 37 But in 



35 

Cited by Villaret, Congregations mariales, 49. 

36 

Coster, Livre de la Compaignie, 104; cited by Chatellier, "Europe of the 



Devout," 35 

37 



See Chatellier, "Europe of the Devout," 133-38; on the confining of the 
poor, see Jean-Pierre Gutton, La Societe et les pauvres en Europe (XVIe-XVIIIe siecles) 



16 <0> Thomas P. Rausch, SJ. 



responding to the needs of the most disadvantaged, they provided a 
network of social services that were otherwise not available. 



Second Period: 1773-1948 

By the first half of the eighteenth century a decline in the 
spirit of many of the congregations had set in. The causes were 
many. They included a loss of ardor on the part of members and the 
inability of the Society to provide enough dedicated directors as well 
as an increasing authoritarianism on the part of some of them. The 
enormous growth of sodalities, from 2,500 groups to 80,000, meant 
that they were becoming much more a mass movement of a largely 
symbolic piety rather than an elite movement of highly dedicated 
members. Other factors included tensions between the sodalities and 
parishes. 

But it was the suppression of the order in 1773 that did the 
most damage to the congregations. Hostility from the courts of 
Spain, France, and Portugal had been growing in the years before 
the Suppression. In 1761 the Parlement in Paris suppressed the 
sodalities in the colleges within its jurisdiction, an action followed by 
other provincial parliaments, and in 1767 Ferdinand IV of Naples 
expelled the Jesuits and suppressed lay groups linked to them. On 
August 16, 1773, Pope Clement XIV's brief Dominus ac Redemptor was 
promulgated, suppressing the Society of Jesus. The brief left the 
Prima primaria without any canonical foundation, but it was not 
suppressed. On November 14, Clement promulgated another brief, 
Commendatissimam, restoring all the privileges of the Roman College, 
including its famous sodality. This meant that the movement of the 
Marian Congregations could continue, but without the guidance of 
the Jesuits. As Paulussen says, "From privileged Jesuit work, the 
[Congregatio Mariana] became one of the normal works of the univer- 
sal Church. With one blow it was cut off from its original inspiration 
and at the same time exposed to inordinate growth/' 38 



(Paris, 1947), 122-57. 

38 



Paulussen, "God Works like That," 25. 



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Most damaging was the loss of the connection between the 
congregations and Ignatian spirituality. After 1773 the majority of 
them were established in parishes or dioceses, thus under episcopal 
sponsorship. According to Paulussen, only 5 percent of the groups 
were established in Jesuit houses. 39 
Many prospered as pious associa- - 

tions. But without Jesuit leader- ^ 

ship and federation, they had lost . « » 

their primary identity. ,s S^rally seen as alow 

point in the history of the 

The first sodality in the Uni- Marian Congregations, but 

ted States was established at there were signs of new life. 

Georgetown in 1810. The sodalities 
began to flourish anew after the 
restoration of the Society in 1814. 

But it took another decade before they began to reafnliate with the 
Prima primaria in Rome. Though some were directed by Jesuits, the 
far-greater number were independent of the Society. Also in the 
period after 1824 an increasing number of women's sodalities, sup- 
ported particularly by religious congregations of women, affiliated 
with the Prima primaria. Between 1839 and 1929, men's sodalities 
represented only about 23 percent of the total number. And the old 
Marian Congregations now had competition from new associations 
such as Frederick Ozanam's Societies of St. Vincent de Paul (1833), 
Adolf Kolping's Gesellenvereine (1845), the archconfraternity of St. 
Francis Xavier, and other expressions of nineteenth-century social 
Catholicism. 40 

The period from 1922 to 1948 is generally seen as a low point 
in the history of the Marian Congregations, but there were signs of 
new life. Much of the original spirit had been lost, but a significant 
step forward was made by Father General Wladimir Ledochowski. 
To revitalize this traditional apostolate, he called representatives 
from all the provinces of the Society to Rome in May 1922 for a 
consultation. As a result he established a Central Secretariat for all 
the sodalities of the world. In a letter of January 25, 1925, establish- 
ing the secretariat, the General described its purpose as follows: 



39 Ibid., 28. 

See Thomas Bokenkotter, Church and Revolution: Catholics in the Struggle for 
Democracy and Social Justice (New York: Doubleday, 1998). 



18 ^ Thomas P. Rausch, S.J. 



To sustain and help the sodalities directed by Jesuits, and by others 
who might wish to have recourse to them; to help in the forming of 
new sodalities; to be a center of information, to settle doubts and 
difficulties concerning government and activity; to be a connecting 
link and a mutual help in fastening the family ties between directors 
and between sodalities; and to encourage the exchange of news 
items. 41 

Thus, though it had no jurisdiction, the secretariat was to function as 
a service center for the worldwide Sodality movement. 42 This was a 
significant development. During roughly this same period, Pius XI 
was promoting the organization of lay apostolic activity under the 
title Catholic Action. 

During this time widely diverse sodalities — of physicians and 
medical personnel, of schools of dentistry and pharmacy, of those 
permanently living in sanatariums and clinics, homes for the blind, 
for theater workers in Dublin, of fishermen on the coasts of Sicily, of 
military men in Brazil and the United States, and prisoners of war 
during the World War II — continued to affiliate with the Prima 
primaria. 

Third Period: 1964-1967 

Pope Pius XII sought to breathe new life into the sodality 
movement. His 1948 apostolic constitution Bis sxculari confirmed the 
privileges previous popes had bestowed on the sodalities, reaffirmed 
their Jesuit charism, the importance of the Spiritual Exercises, and 
their Marian character, and declared them a particular form of 
Catholic Action. 43 The Pope's call for a renewal of the movement 
generated a number of responses, both institutional and in the area 
of spirituality. They were to give new life to the movement and 
prepare the way for its ultimate transformation. Institutionally, 71 
Jesuits from 40 countries gathered in Rome in 1950. In 1953 the 
World Federation of Marian Congregations was established, and 
world assemblies were held in 1954 (Rome), 1959 (Newark, New 
Jersey), and 1959 (Bombay). 



Cited by Villaret, Abridged History, 159. 

This was the first secretariat for a Jesuit work. Today there are eight other 
such secretariats in the Curia. 

Acta Apostolic* Sedis 40 (September 27, 1948): 393^02. 



CLCs for Jesuit University Students? <0> 1 9 



There was also a rediscovery of the Spiritual Exercises. In 1951, 
the sodality at John Carroll University in Cleveland sponsored an 
eight-day retreat for students and young professionals, something 
virtually unheard of in those days. In 1959 it offered a thirty-day 
retreat. Study and reflection on the Exercises in Europe, particularly 
through the work of Hugo Rahner, also contributed to a revival of 
Ignatian retreats. 44 One Cuban 
sodality, the Agrupacion Catolica _^^^^^^^_^^^^^^^^_ 

Universitaria, founded by Spanish _, . . T . . 

T . -n v r> j o a u The spirituality of CLC is 

Jesuit Felipe Key de Castro, began r v J 

a new life in Miami after the exo- Chrtst centered (rathei ! *" 

dus of Cubans to the United States Marian). It is nourished by 

in the 1960s. In the following Scripture, the liturgy, the 

years its members struggled to Church's doctrinal tradition, 

maintain their cultural traditions and an attention to God's 

and particularly their emphasis on wil1 *$ discerned through the 
independent lay associations events of our time. 

against the assimilationist efforts of ^^_^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
the archdiocese to integrate them 

into the American model of parish-centered Catholicism. What 
resulted was an adaptation of Cuban Catholicism to a new environ- 
ment. One of its present ministries is a residence for Latin American 
students studying at Miami's universities, a model common today in 
Spain where Jesuits run residences for both Catholic and state- 
university students. 45 

Fourth Period: 1967 to the Present 

Perhaps the most significant step was taken in 1967 at the 
Fourth Assembly of the World Federation of Marian Congregations 
in Rome. In an effort to update the movement in light of the Second 
Vatican Council, with its new emphasis on the place of the lay- 
person in the Church, the name was changed from the World 
Federation of Marian Congregations to Christian Life Communities. 
Far more than a change in name, the move really represented a 
rebirth or new beginning of the movement. 



44 

Paulussen, "God Works like That/' 42-43. 

See Jose M. Hernandez, "The Story of the ACU: How a Cuban Religious 
Organization Was Successfully Transplanted to the U.S./' U.S. Catholic Historian 21, 
no. 1 (Winter 2003); for a description of the residential program, see 
http://www.acu-adsum.orc/miami/residencia.htm 



20 <C> Thomas P. Rausch, S.J. 

Christian Life Communities 

What led to the transformation of the Marian Congregations 
into Christian Life Communities? In his study of the 
spirituality of the Christian Life Communities, Bernard T. 
Owens, S.J., points to four factors that were influential. One was the 
aggiornamento brought about by the Second Vatican Council, particu- 
larly with its new theological understanding of the place and voca- 
tion of the layperson in Church and world. A second factor was the 
emphasis on issues of justice, peace, and liberation in the papal 
encyclicals and synod documents in the years following the council. 

A third and particularly important factor was new emphasis 
on the Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius as the source of the spiritual- 
ity for the CLCs. Josee Gsell attributes the renewal or birth of the 
CLCs to "the rediscovery of the original and specific orientation of 
[the sodalities], that is, the Spiritual Exercises as [the CLC] way to live 
out the Gospel/ 746 And finally the new "Constitution" of the CLCs 
that resulted from the 1967 assembly reformulated the "Rules" of the 
Sodality as "General Principles": the "Rules" had become increas- 
ingly detailed and juridical in tone. 47 

From Marian Congregations to Christian Life Community 

The best account available of the transformation is that of 
Louis Paulussen, a Dutch Jesuit who at Father General Janssens's 
request took over the Central Secretariat for the Marian Congrega- 
tions in Rome in 1951. 48 The decisive step was taken in 1967 when 
the World Federation of Marian Congregations changed the name to 
a World Federation of Christian Life Communities. 49 The new name 



Josee Gsell, "Implementation of the General Principles during the Last 12 
Years, Progressio 2 (March 1979): 3. 

4 See Bernard J. Owens, S.J., "A Study of the Spirituality of the Lay Adult 
Members of the Christian Life Communities in the USA" (unpublished dissertation 
prepared for the Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, Cal.), 28-71. The "General 
Principles" and "Norms" can be found on the World CLC Website at www.cvx-clc.net 

48 

Louis Paulussen, S.J., "God Works like That," 3-51. 

49 

In some countries sodalities continue to exist, though under the supervision 
of dioceses or religious institutes and without any links to the Christian Life 
Community. 



CLCs for Jesuit University Students? ^ 21 



came spontaneously from the floor and quickly won approval from a 
majority of the delegates. It had never been used before, though a 
similar name, Groupes de Vie Chretienne, had been adopted for the 
movement in France in the 1950s. Paulussen explains the reasons for 
the name change: 

If the image of the CM [Marian Congregations] suggests a reality 
which is so completely different from the best groups, which have 
renewed themselves in accordance with the original inspiration, then 
the name CM is no longer appropriate. It creates wrong ideas, misun- 
derstanding and confusion. This name has become not a help or 
better service but an obstacle. It has to be changed, at least in those 
places where confusion is created. 50 

The assembly also proposed a new way of life, based not on // Rules ,/ 
but on "General Principles/ 7 Though formulated in the spirit of the 
Second Vatican Council, the Central Secretariat in Rome had been in 
dialogue with the worldwide movement since 1959. 51 The "General 
Principles" were approved by the Holy See in 1968. In 1982, a gen- 
eral assembly at Providence, Rhode Island, changed the Federation 
into a World Christian Life Community. 

Thus, the Christian Life Community is really a world body, 
made up of some sixty national communities (as of 1999), most of 
which have between 100 to 500 members. 52 But three national com- 
munities are exceptional: Madagascar with 18,000 members, India 
with over 20,000, and the Marian Congregation in Lebanon, which 
shares some common elements with CLC, with some 75,000 members. 
The national communities are often formed by regional communities 
that in turn are made up of smaller groups or communities of up to 
twelve members. In the United States, CLC is organized by regions, 
represented by the various provinces. Each province has an ecclesi- 
astical assistant, a Jesuit responsible for the CLC within the province. 

The CLC is a lay community, structured by the "General 
Principles" and governed by two international bodies. The General 
Assembly, meeting normally every five years, sets general policy. 



50 Paulussen, "God Works like That/' 46. 

51 Ibid., 43. 

52 

Most national communities correspond to a given country, though in 
bilingual countries, such as Belgium and Canada, there is a national community for 
each language group. 



22 <0> Thomas P. Rausch, S.J. 



The Executive Council, made up of three appointed members and 
seven elected members serving five-year terms, is responsible for the 
implementation of policy and for the ordinary government of the 
community. 

"General Principles" 

The "General Principles" (GP) of the Christian Life Community, 
confirmed again by the Holy See on December 3, 1990, expresses a 
vision of a way of life as a particular vocation in the Church, based 
on the spirituality of the Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius. The origin 
of the movement in the groups of laypeople associated with the 
Jesuits since the earliest days of the Society is specifically acknowl- 
edged (GP 3). The charism of CLC is the desire of adult Christians "to 
follow Jesus Christ more closely and work with him for the building 
of the Kingdom" (GP 4). Jesuits often speak of the "three pillars" of 
the movement as spirituality, community, and mission. 

Spirituality 

The spirituality of CLC is Christ centered (rather than Marian). 
It is nourished by Scripture, the liturgy, the Church's doctrinal 
tradition, and an attention to God's will as discerned through the 
events of our time (GP 5), what Vatican II speaks of as "scrutinizing 
the signs of the times" (Gaudium et spes, 4). But pride of place is 
given to the Exercises: "Within the context of these universal sources, 
we hold the Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius as the specific source 
and the characteristic instrument of our spirituality" (GP 5). The 
"General Norms" (GN) several times mentions the Exercises, stipulat- 
ing that "[a]n experience of the complete Spiritual Exercises in one of 
their several forms . . . precedes a permanent commitment to Chris- 
tian Life Community" (GN 4). It is the Jesus of the Exercises, a radi- 
cally Ignatian Christology that shapes the spirituality of the CLC and 
its way of life: 

austere and simple, in solidarity with the poor and the outcasts of 
society, integrating contemplation and action, in all things living lives 
of love and service within the Church, always in a spirit of discern- 



CLCs for Jesuit University Students? <0> 23 



ment. This Ignatian Christology springs from the contemplation of 
the Incarnation where the mission of Jesus is revealed. 53 

But the spirituality of CLC is also ecclesial, concerned to work 
with the hierarchy and other Church leaders and expressing a 
willingness to go and to serve where the needs of the Church 
demand (GP 6). 

Community 

While a CLC member is presumed to be committed to the 
world CLC, practically, that commitment finds expression through a 
local community. These communities are freely chosen, centered in 
the Eucharist, bound together by a common commitment, a common 
way of life, and recognition of Mary as mother. Each is "a gathering 
of people in Christ, a cell of [Christ's] mystical body" (GP 7). For most 
members, the local community is the primary CLC experience. Ac- 
cording to a document entitled The CLC Charism (2001), the character- 
istics of the CLC community are a "lived" commitment, a community 
in mission, a world community, and an ecclesial community (Char- 
ism, B). Particularly important is the notion that the CLC is a "com- 
munity on mission or an apostolic community" (no. 143). After 
discerning a call or vocation to this community according to the CLC 
way of life, a candidate makes first a temporary commitment, under- 
stood as "the expression of a desire to live according to the CLC way 
of life (GN 39a). Ordinarily a temporary commitment is made after a 
period of time that should not last more than four years. The "Gen- 
eral Norms" recommends a personal experience of the Exercises as a 
means towards making this commitment (GN 1.2). At this stage the 
person making the temporary commitment tries to remain open to 
whatever his or her individual vocation might mean and to an 
Ignatian process of discerning the ultimate form it might take (Char- 
ism, nos. 179-85). 

While the temporary commitment corresponds to the Call of 
the King and Election, a permanent commitment is related to the 
personal surrender in the Contemplation for Attaining Love and its 
Suscipe (Charism, no. 191). The commitment, which should be cele- 
brated publicly, has a sacramental character (Charism, nos. 197-98). 



53 

The CLC Charism (revised December 2001), no. 20; the document can be 
found on the World CLC Website at www.cvx-clc.net 



24 <$> Thomas P. Rausch, SJ. 



Mission 

Finally, the CLC way of life is "essentially apostolic." The 
mission of those in CLC extends to both Church and world; it is 
identified with Christ's mission of bringing the good news to the 
poor, opening hearts to conversion, and struggling to change op- 
pressive structures. Each member of CLC receives a personal call from 
God for a mission that is exercised through and supported by the 
community (GP 8). While the "General Principles" speaks of the 
mission extending to the Church and to the world, the emphasis is 
on the social-justice dimension of the CLC mission: 

The Community urges us to proclaim the Word of God and to work 
for the reform of structures of society, participating in efforts to 
liberate the victims from all sorts of discrimination and especially to 
abolish differences between rich and poor. We wish to contribute to 
the evangelisation of cultures from within. We desire to do all this in 
an ecumenical spirit, ready to collaborate with those initiatives that 
bring about unity among Christians. Our life finds its permanent 
inspiration in the Gospel of the poor and humble Christ. (GP 8, d) 

This emphasis on justice and identification with the poor is spelled 
out in greater detail in another document entitled "Our Common 
Mission." 54 That mission is described as follows: 

Our personal relationship with God, which arises from the Spiritual 
Exercises of St. Ignatius, is the inspiration, which fires us to partici- 
pate in the struggle for a just world. We prize the church's prophetic 
stand against poverty itself and against all that causes poverty. 
Rooted in Christ and in his love for us, we want to make the option 
for the poor, not as an idea, but by making serious analysis and 
adopting a responsible and effective attitude towards poverty and its 
causes, (p. 2) 



CLCs on the Campus 

For many young adults today, their first experience of Christian 
Life Community comes through their becoming involved with 
a college or university CLC group, though a number of Jesuit 
high schools have CLC groups. They are attracted to these groups 



www.cvx-clc.net 



CLCs for Jesuit University Students? <0> 25 



because they offer a unique opportunity for them to share their own 
faith experience with their peers, to pray together, and to become 
acquainted with one another on a much deeper level. The group 
offers the students a chance to explore faith issues with one another 
in a safe environment. Their participation is voluntary, and the 
group process is both confidential and nonconfrontational. The local 
community helps them in their efforts to integrate their faith into 
their lives. Each group has a " guide," a spiritual leader or moderator 
for a student group, as well as a coordinator who sees to practical 
details. 

It is difficult to get accurate information about how many CLCs 
for young adults are presently active on Jesuit campuses in the 
United States. Thus my report here is more anecdotal than compre- 
hensive. In California, Santa Clara University has six CLC groups and 
the University of San Francisco four. Loyola Marymount University 
has perhaps the most successful program. As of fall 2003 there are 45 
groups on campus, 25 led by adults, including a number of Jesuits, 
and 50 with undergraduate student guides. Some 401 students are 
involved, mostly undergraduate, 

though there is one graduate-stu- — ^^^^^^— ^^^-^^^^^ 
dent group and an alumni group -j have never had a deep 

being formed. There are also two personal friendship with a 

adult CLCs guided by retired Jesu- - t QY haders * fhe 

its in the community. The pro- chufch before Ms 

gram is coordinated by the univer- ^ . 1 , , . , 

°. , . . J ... . This has lea me to have a 

sity s campus-ministry omce, and a T xx r .. r . . xT xr 

T J . L . r . j r ii .- . .i better relationship with the 

Jesuit is assigned full-time to the ~, , Al , , r . , . 

. . XT -i_ Church through hearing his 

ministry. He meets once a month . d , . „ 

with the fifty student guides and testimony and input. 

has organized a number of other i^_^^__^^^^^^^^^_ 
activities for the students involved 

in the program — Taize prayer services during Lent, monthly discus- 
sions about opportunities and challenges for faith in daily life, movie 
nights, retreats, and special liturgies. The campus CLC groups are 
understood as "pre-communities" since they are not officially affili- 
ated at the national or world level. Christian Life Community is 
really for adults and demands a permanent commitment. It is hoped 
that some older members will make a temporary commitment in the 
coming year. 



26 <0> Thomas P. Rausch, SJ. 



Boston College has had a CLC group sponsored by the Jesuit 
Community that has been meeting weekly (during the academic 
year) for almost ten years. Its membership has remained around 10 
to 12 and is renewed each year as student members graduate. 
Meetings are student led and center on Ignatian prayer, Scripture 
reflection, usually on the readings of the day or the following Sun- 
day, and other topics that the students are interested in, often 
drawn from current theological or Church issues. The group has no 
formal apostolic project and no formal training, but meets also for 
social and cultural events. A number of those who have been part of 
the community have been in vocational discernment programs; one 
is now a Jesuit novice and others are considering diocesan priest- 
hood or Jesuit-related service projects. The group is unique in 
having primarily male members. 

Boston College also sponsors ten other CLCs through the 
Department of Campus Ministry. Alongside of CLC, other "small faith 
community" experiences are part of the many campus-ministry 
service projects that bring students to places like Jamaica, El Salva- 
dor, or Appalachia. Each of these last-mentioned groups has exten- 
sive preparation for their various trips. Typically, a student going to 
one of these places will be meeting weekly for at least one full 
semester with the other members of his or her service-immersion 
trip and a faculty/staff advisor. They gather again on their return. 
These service-orientated, short-term "small faith communities" focus 
strongly on Ignatian spirituality. Thus, in many ways the essential 
elements of CLC — community building, faith sharing in an Ignatian 
context, delving into Scripture, and real concrete service — exist in 
these small groups that include quite a large number of students. 
Last spring, Boston College sent over 700 students on these alterna- 
tive spring-break service-immersion trips. 

Creighton University has ten student-led CLC groups with 50 
members. Fordham has a group known as the "Faber CLC." The 
members range in age from mid-20s to 40. Some are married, some 
have children. They are very active and meet twice a month. Pres- 
ently they are in the midst of the Nineteenth Annotation Retreat. 
Loyola University of New Orleans has about 26 members in 3 
groups. Seattle University and St. Louis University also have CLC 
groups. 



CLCs for Jesuit University Students? «0> 27 



The Weekly Meeting 

In my years as a guide for a student CLC group here at Loyola 
Marymount University, I have repeatedly been impressed with 
the honesty and spontaneity of the students in sharing their 
own faith and lives, their strengths and weaknesses. For many of 
them, the gathering of their local community is a cherished moment 
in their week. They bring all the creativity of the young to their 
weekly meeting, leading each other in guided meditations, talking 
about personal devotions, occasionally rising early to pray in the 
dawn on the nearby Pacific shore. Often a poem or popular song 
will be all that is needed for them to begin a conversation. 



Typical Meetings 

A typical meeting of a campus CLC group begins with a brief 
prayer, and then a "check-in," a few minutes given over to each 
member of the group for updating the others on moments of stress 
and grace, the lights and shadows 

of the past week. Then the one 

responsible for that particular 

meeting introduces the faith-shar- " U has hel P ed me realize that 
ing exercise for the evening. It the Church is the P eo P U 

might involve a Scripture reading, "?? that despite what 

~ a a j-i. l- r^ i problems the institution 

a guided meditation on a Gospel , »«»•.« 

. j aces, I should still stay close 

story, or a song or story presented fo ^ Church/' 

by the leader. Carefully formu- 
lated "reflection questions" can — ^— — — — — — — 

help the members get in touch 

with their experience. 55 The final moments of the meeting are usu- 
ally given over to "business," making sure leaders have volunteered 
for the next two sessions, announcements, community projects, and 
any other business. Some groups also include a brief reflection on 



Mark Link's small handbook, Challenge 2000: A Daily Meditation Program 
Based on The Spiritual Exercises of Saint Ignatius (Allen, Tex.: Tabor, 1993), offers many 
helpful questions for reflection, arranged with Scripture texts and a brief meditation. 



28 4> Thomas P. Rausch, S.J. 



their sense of how the meeting went. The meetings always close 
with another prayer. 56 

Some examples: Recently in my group the student leader for 
the evening had asked the members of the group the week before to 
choose a popular song that best symbolized themselves. When we 
met, each played their song on the sound system. One, whose song 
was the theme from the movie Titanic, "Never Let Go," spoke about 
how she had clung to her relationship with God through a number 
of crises in her life. Another used his song to explore his own feel- 
ings about going to Mass, and his struggle to replace the faith of his 
parents that he brought to the university with his own. A third 
shared her sorrow in not having a boy friend, and yet was confident 
that God would help her find the man that was right for her. At 
another meeting, the leader for the night brought rosaries for all the 
members of the group, explained how it was prayed — which was 
unknown to some — and then led the group in an extended recita- 
tion of the rosary with meditations on the passion. 

Respecting the Process 

If a group is to form a genuine community and function 
successfully, it is essential to respect the freedom of the participants 
and the confidentiality of the group process. A person freely chooses 
to share something of his or her experience and should be able do 
so on a level at which they are comfortable. There is no need to fill 
moments of silence. What is shared should be received respectfully; 
this is not a time for instruction or dialogue and never for contra- 
dicting another. While a person may choose not to share at a given 
moment, the success of the group requires that all be willing to 
participate actively, and to be open to the experience of the other 
members. Silence is an important part of the process. For honest 
sharing, confidentiality is essential. 57 



Lawrence L. Gooley, in his To Share in the Life of Christ: Experiencing God in 
Everyday Life (Saint Louis: The Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1997), is very helpful, 
suggesting both topics and Scripture texts for CLC meetings. Also very helpful is A 
Manual of Formation for Christian Life Community, Phase I (Guelph: Office of English 
Canada CLC, Box 245, Guelph, Ontario N1H 6J9). 

en 

Cf. Thomas A. Kleissler, Margo A. LeBert, and Mary C. McGuinness, Small 
Christian Communities: A Vision of Hope for the 21st Century (New York: Paulist Press, 
1991), 12. 



CLCs for Jesuit University Students? ^ 29 



Student Comments 

To get some specific reaction, I gave a questionnaire to all our 
groups on campus. The students who responded (approximately 10 
percent), both men and women, repeatedly remarked on how 
important the weekly CLC meeting was to them. According to one, 
"CLC is always one of the main 
highlights of my week. It takes me — — — — — — — ^^^ 

out of my daily business or wor- He observes that it is very 

ries. It gives me time to reflect on difficult for many groups to 

how much I've seen God in my mom heyond „ the quasi _ 

life and in the people I interact therapeutic functions of faith 
with/' Another said, "CLC is the md psychological support of 

best thine I have become involved .; , „ ^ 

& , the members. They move 

m on campus. I know that CLC is a ... , ... 

, , r . , . , T t to mission only with 

safe haven in which I can share . ,.^. ljL 

, ,. , , , great difficulty. 

my feelings, problems, and en- d JJ u 

counters with God." This same •-, " - ••• ■■" i i 

student commented on what get- 
ting to know her Jesuit guide on a more personal basis meant to her: 
"I have never had a deep personal friendship with a priest or lead- 
ers of the Church before this group. This has led me to have a better 
relationship with the Church through hearing his testimony and 
input/' Another said that CLC gave her a newfound passion for God 
that caused her to become a theology minor. 

The group process is important to the students. One re- 
marked, "One of my favorite parts about CLC is how we take time to 
reflect on our day and how we see God throughout our day. Much 
of this reflection is done openly and shared with the group, but we 
also take time to reflect on our inner-personal thoughts." Another 
observed that shared prayer and reflection made her experience the 
Trinity in a more personal way: "The activities and prayers that we 
do in CLC are always thought-provoking. They have given me new 
ways to look at God, Jesus, and the Spirit. I can now differentiate 
my images of them. I see the Spirit as a force that moves me, and 
Jesus as a person I can relate to. I see God as a universal watcher, 
guide, and comforter." 

A number noted that CLC helped them to relate more posi- 
tively to the Church. One said: "CLC has allowed me to make my 
faith my own. It has helped me realize that the Church is the people 



30 ^ Thomas P. Rausch, S.J. 



and that despite what problems the institution faces, I should still 
stay close to the Church/ 7 Another wrote: "Although I feel the 
Church as an institution has much to work on, I am comforted by 
open-minded Catholics who live out the spirit of Jesus' message. CLC 
has fostered a spirit of dialogue and it allows for different perspec- 
tives to be shared." 



Challenges 

University-level CLC groups offer a unique opportunity to 
introduce young people to Ignatian spirituality and the CLC 
way of life. But this does not happen automatically, and 
there are many challenges to ensuring that a university CLC can 
move to genuine experience of the CLC way of life. 

Support or Faith-Sharing Group 

For many students who at this stage in their lives are still 
working out issues of identity and intimacy, the weekly meeting 
functions as a support group where they can share personal con- 
cerns and get to know one another on a more intimate level. Ber- 
nard Lee's study of small Christian communities, which includes 
CLCs on Jesuit campuses, tends to confirm this. In the first appendix, 
William D'Antonio notes that while faith sharing was a major activity 
in most of the small Christian communities, only a small majority of 
campus groups engaged in it on a regular basis. 58 When asked what 
constituted the best part of their participation, 38 percent pointed to 
community and friendship; 30 percent to sharing and exchanging, 11 
percent to learning about God, and 9 percent to spiritual growth. 59 
The fact that CLCs provide personal support to students is important, 
but that is not enough by itself. 

Thus, one challenge is to ensure that the weekly meeting 
becomes something more than simply a support group. John Milan 
has long been involved in CLC work in Canada and is a former 
member of the world CLC Executive Council, the group charged with 
the ordinary government of the CLC community. He observes that it 



Lee, Catholic Experience, 152. 



59 Ibid., 156. 



CLCs for Jesuit University Students? <0> 31 



is very difficult for many groups to move beyond "the quasi-thera- 
peutic functions of faith and psychological support of the members/ 7 
They move to mission only with great difficulty. 60 A campus CLC 
group should be more than a gathering of like-minded individuals. 
It should be understood as a cell of the worldwide Christian Life 
Community, what the "General Norms" refer to as a "local, pre-CLC 
community" (GN I. l.a). Its purpose is to help its members come to 
know and assimilate the CLC way of life and to discern whether or 
not they have the desire to commit to it. 

Prayer and Ignatian Spirituality 

A second challenge is to encourage these young adults to the 

practice of regular prayer and, particularly, to introduce them to the 

spirituality of the Spiritual Exercises. For undergraduate students, 

Scripture is only one point of departure for reflection and personal 

sharing; popular music, poetry, and reflection questions seem to 

work just as well. The challenge is 

to help them to become more fa- — ^ — — — — — — 

miliar with the Bible, to encounter In ffe , y^ SMes the 

it regularly as God's Word, and to £ . y 

?. . J . r ' _ enormous success of the 

use it in the prayer of the Exer- ,, . ^ J r 

r J Marian Congregations has 

cises. 

not been equaled in our own 

One way to address this is time hy the Christian Life 
for the guide to work closely with Community movement, but 
the student leader in preparing CLC {s much ^ ^tal in 
the topic for each session The Qfher . QJ fc WQrU 
guide can suggest themes, draw- 
ing on material from the Exercises ^ — — — ^— ^— 
and from Ignatian spirituality. Of- 
ten it suffices to suggest a theme and let the student develop it. 
While young adults can be very creative in leading reflection ses- 
sions, a guide who suggests themes and considerations from the 
Exercises can gradually help the students become more familiar with 
the dynamics of Ignatian prayer. An appreciation of the First Princi- 
ple and Foundation, the Kingdom of Christ, and Call of the King, 
basic principles of discernment, finding God in all things, using 



John P. Milan, "Formation of Lay Faith Communities," The Way, 
Supplement 62 (Summer 1988), 5. 



32 <$> Thomas P. Rausch, SJ. 



Scripture imaginatively and other ways of praying in the Ignatian 
tradition, the ''love is expressed in deeds" of the Contemplatio ad 
Amorem — all these are themes that can be easily communicated 
through repetition in the group meetings. 

Forming Student Guides 

Because many university CLC programs are dependent on 
student guides, another challenge is forming the guides who have 
the skills necessary to lead a group. The guide's role has a number of 
important aspects. The first is to facilitate the group process, to 
ensure that members of the group develop the trust and confidence 
to share their own faith journeys with each other. Second, they 
should be familiar themselves with Ignatian spirituality and the CLC 
way of life so that they can help the members of the group grow in 
both areas. Finally, they should be themselves persons formed by 
prayer and Scripture. A successful CLC program is to a considerable 
extent dependent on having guides who are themselves carefully 
formed and prepared. 

For example, in 1990 a CLC program was established at Stan- 
ford University at Palo Alto, California, when the Jesuit campus 
minister contacted a member of the National Youth and Young 
Adult Formation Team. After a series of initial meetings on the CLC 
way of life, four groups were formed. In November 1991 ten stu- 
dents attended the National Formation Meeting. Soon there were 
seven groups. Shane Martin, who was influential in starting the 
program at Stanford, attributes its success to its careful, on-going 
formation of the student leadership. 61 He notes that the Stanford CLC 
program was the first to feature student leaders of CLC groups, at 
least in such large numbers. 62 Unfortunately, it did not survive a 
change from Jesuit to Dominican leadership in the university cam- 
pus-ministry office. 

At LMU one of our graduate students developed a plan for the 
formation of student guides for her MA thesis. She argued that 
prospective guides should have completed at least one year as 
members of a CLC group and that they should be invited to consider 



See Shane Martin, "Stanford University as a Model of CLC on College and 
University Campuses," Progressio, no. 3 (1992): 16. 

62 

In a communication to the author. 



CLCs for Jesuit University Students? <t 33 



becoming guides by someone in the CLC campus leadership. To help 
them discern whether or not they would like to serve as guides, she 
designed a mini-retreat, a two-and-a-half-hour session to introduce 
them through prayer and group interaction to the CLC formation 
process and role of the guide. The whole recruitment and discern- 
ment process should be under the supervision of campus ministry, 
and lead to a commission celebrated liturgically for the campus 
community early in the fall semester. She recommended that new 
guides find an opportunity to make the Spiritual Exercises in some 
form, and that they receive spiritual direction. Most importantly, the 
new guides should meet as a group on a weekly basis with one of 
the campus ministers to share their experience with their groups and 
to learn from each other. 63 



Attracting and Keeping Men 

Another challenge is attracting and keeping male members in 
campus CLC communities. Many CLCs are heavily female in 
membership. At lmu, out of 45 groups, there are 281 women 
and 120 men members, a ratio of 3:1. While a significant number of 
male students join in their first year, their perseverance rate is much 
less than that of female students. Many males leave their CLC groups 
when they become involved with campus fraternities that seem 
much better able to meet their needs for close relationships with 
other men. 

John Milan, long involved with CLCs in Canada and in Rome, 
suggests that part of the problem of keeping men involved may be 
the feminine character of much of contemporary spirituality. He 
argues that with Vatican II a shift occurred, from an emphasis on 
conformity to external rules and objective truth to a spirituality of 
intimacy with God, self, and others. The central symbol for this new 
spirituality is the interpersonal relationship. Such spirituality under- 
stands spiritual growth as a movement from isolation to intimacy. Its 
primary emphasis is on self-revelation, trust, emotional support, and 
affirmation. God is imagined as love, Jesus as a close personal friend, 



61 

Kristi L. Gonsalves, "Student Guide Formation for Christian Life 
Communities at Loyola Marymount University" (unpublished MA thesis presented at 
Loyola Marymount University, 1998). 



34 <0> Thomas P. Rausch, SJ. 



and the Kingdom is identified with the establishment of commu- 
nity. 64 Milan characterizes such spirituality as having a "feminine- 
gender orientation." He argues that men, who are socialized in the 
goal-directed values of achievement, competition, and negotiation, 
are "simply not comfortable in a feminine-oriented spirituality." This 
may be why it is so difficult to attract and hold men in spiritual and 
communal formation programs, especially when they include men 
and women, and it may explain why they "are consistently in the 
minority" in most lay faith communities. 65 

Milan may overemphasize what he sees as the feminization of 
spirituality; indeed, some today would find his argument offensive. 
Young men today are also concerned about deeper relationships, 
more honest conversations, and shared values. The integration of 
their feminine side is an important point in their development. The 
call to follow Jesus in the Exercises presumes that one has come to 
an intimate knowledge and love of the one Ignatius calls Christ our 
Lord. But still Milan may have a point. Nor is he the only one 
concerned about an overemphasis on feminine spirituality. Without 
denying the importance of integrating the feminine, Richard Rohr 
argues that the modern Church is "swirling in the false feminine" 
which is "characterized by too much inwardness, preoccupation with 
relationships, a morass of unclarified feeling and endless self-protec- 
tiveness." He calls for an integration that would incorporate the 
values of a masculine spirituality, emphasizing "action over theory, 
service to the human community over religious discussion, speaking 
the truth over social graces and doing justice over looking nice." 66 

It is difficult to deny that much of our contemporary religious 
language and the vision of the good it supports lack the strong 
masculine imagery one finds in Ignatius and the Spiritual Exercises. 
The courtly, even military images, the sense of being involved in a 
great campaign with "Christ our supreme Captain," the challenge of 
the magis, the desire to be identified with Jesus in the Third Degree 
of Humility, to accomplish great things, even at personal cost — in 
short, the challenging images that appeal to the wild man, the 
warrior, and the lover who still dwell deep in the male psyche — are 



Milan, "Formation of Lay Faith Communities/' 6. 

65 Ibid., 7. 

Richard Rohr and Joseph Martos, The Wild Man's Journey: Reflections on Male 
Spirituality (Cincinnati, Ohio: St. Anthony Messenger Press, 1991), 222. 



CLCs for Jesuit University Students? <0> 35 



seldom to be found. Milan sees a spirituality that is understood 
primarily in affective and relational terms as tending towards the 
private and the interpersonal rather than the public. Even the 
Ignatian emphasis on love as expressed in deeds, "when interpreted 
in an interpersonal way, will tend to image deeds as private inter- 
personal kindness rather than the heroic action in the public world 
imaged in the Kingdom meditation." 67 One might ask, would such 
spirituality have drawn Francis Xavier out of his comfortable univer- 
sity lifestyle? Will it appeal to men today? Can it sustain an active 
apostolic life? Milan's argument is worth considering. 

Membership 

A final challenge is the question of who should be admitted. 
The current emphasis on inclusion and diversity can sometimes 
present a problem. Are CLCs sufficiently selective? Do they simply 
accept those who are looking for a supportive, affirming group, or 
do they seek to recruit those who can live the CLC vision or be 
potential leaders? Candidates should have a strong faith commit- 
ment. While a campus CLC group does not have to be restricted to 
Catholic students, the focus and spirituality of CLC is clearly Chris- 
tian. Here the Jesuit Volunteer Corps (JVC) is suggestive. One of the 
key components in a successful JVC experience is the community in 
which the volunteers live. Some communities have not "worked" 
when those seeking some faith sharing and common prayer, even 
grace before meals, are frustrated by the presence of nominally 
religious members who are opposed to explicit signs of faith or 
religious commitment. Being selective does not necessarily mean 
violating the principle of inclusivity. 

Christian Life Community and the 
Society of Jesus Today 

In the United States the enormous success of the Marian Congre- 
gations has not been equaled in our own time by the Christian 
Life Community movement, but CLC is much more vital in other 
parts of the world. Present on five continents, it is an international 



en 

Milan, "Formation of Lay Faith Communities/' 7. 



36 ^ Thomas P. Rausch, S.J. 



association of Christians, men and woman, young and old, united by 
their desire to work with Christ Jesus for the building of the King- 
dom. In Europe, where Jesuit university presence is more often 
pastoral than academic, with Jesuits running dormitories, young- 
adult residences and student associations, a great deal of energy 
goes into CLC. In the United States there are flourishing Vietnamese, 
Korean, and Cuban CLC communities. Where there have been 
dedicated Jesuit leadership and institutional support in our colleges 
and universities, CLC has also flourished. But generally there has not 
been significant Jesuit investment in CLC in these institutions. Cam- 
pus-ministry programs are often divided among the multiple pro- 
grams and the diverse communities they seek to serve. Many do not 
have a staff member with full-time responsibilities for developing 
CLC groups. Some are opposed to CLC. 

It may be that some older Jesuits today are less than enthusi- 
astic about CLC because they continue to associate it with the Marian 
character of the sodality they remember from their own student 
days. Many are more open to other groups designed to facilitate 
faith sharing among adults, even though this remains a primary 
purpose of CLC. While college-level CLC groups represent "pre- 
communities," intended to prepare young people for an adult CLC 
commitment, there are a number of reasons why Jesuits in the 
United States might find these groups a rich resource. First, as a lay 
movement under Jesuit sponsorship and nourished by the spiritu- 
ality of the Exercises, CLC offers one effective way of expressing the 
commitment to partnership with the laity called for by GC 34. 
Decree 13, "Cooperation with the Laity in Mission," notes that many 
lay persons "desire to be united with us through participation in 
apostolic associations of Ignatian inspiration" (no. 16). 

Second, the fact that CLC combines community, spirituality, 
and mission should be attractive to many Jesuits today. The Society 
already sponsors a number of initiatives that seek to combine these 
elements. Consider, for example, the JVC (and the Jesuit International 
Volunteers), Nineteenth Annotation retreat groups, the various 
immersion trips sponsored by our colleges, universities, and even 
high schools, the emphasis on service learning and learning commu- 
nities. 68 



For example, Loyola Marymount has a new initiative called P.L.A.C.E. 
Corps, standing for "Partners in Los Angeles Catholic Education," which brings 



CLCs for Jesuit University Students? <0> 37 



Third, the communal dimension of college-level CLC groups is 
attractive to many undergraduates today who are seeking some 
experience of community to offset the individualism of their post- 
modern culture. 

The challenge to the Society of Jesus in the United States is to 
determine whether or not it wants to take advantage of the Chris- 
tian Life Community movement as an instrument with a rich heri- 
tage for promoting an Ignatian vision among those we serve, partic- 
ularly in our institutions. The August 2003 Fourteenth General 
Assembly of the world CLC at Nairobi, Kenya, added an appendix to 
its report, calling for a deeper collaboration between CLC and the 
Society of Jesus. It asked for structures to facilitate better communi- 
cation and support at the regional level and, particularly, for a 
clearer definition of the role of the Ecclesiastical Assistant, a Jesuit 
appointed for support of CLC on a national level, to be "developed 
by CLC working together with the Society of Jesus and especially 
current Ecclesiastical Assistants/' But it is not clear that CLC is really a 
priority for us today, either as individuals or for the Society in the 
United States. Should we try to reclaim this rich tradition? Or should 
we be looking to something else? 



♦ 



together recent graduates to earn a master's degree and teaching credentials while 
they teach in inner-city Catholic elementary or high schools and live in what are 
designed to be faith-filled communities. Santa Clara University has invested heavily 
in learning communities for its resident students. 



Past Issues: Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits 

(For prices, see inside back cover.) 

1/1 Sheets, Profile of the Contemporary Jesuit (Sept. 1969) 
1/2 Ganss, Authentic Spiritual Exercises: History and Terminology (Nov. 1969) 
2/1 Burke, Institution and Person (Feb. 1970) 
2/2 Futrell, Ignatian Discernment (Apr. 1970) 

2/3 Lonergan, Response of the Jesuit as Priest and Apostle (Sept. 1970) 
3/1 Wright, Grace of Our Founder and the Grace of Our Vocation (Feb. 1971) 
3/2 O'Flaherty, Some Reflections on Jesuit Commitment (Apr. 1971) 
3/4 Toner, A Method for Communal Discernment of God's Will (Sept. 1971) 
3/5 Sheets, Toward a Theology of the Religious Life (Nov. 1971) 
4/2 Two Discussions: I. Spiritual Direction, II. Leadership and Authority (Mar. 1972) 
4/3 Orsy, Some Questions about the Purpose and Scope of the General Congregation (June 1972) 
4/4 Ganss, Wright, O'Malley, O'Donovan, Dulles, On Continuity and Change: A Symposium 
(Oct. 1972) 
5/1-2 O'Flaherty, Renewal: Call and Response (Jan.-Mar. 1973) 
5/3 Arrupe, McNaspy, The Place of Art in Jesuit Life (Apr. 1973) 
5/4 Haughey, The Pentecostal Thing and Jesuits (June 1973) 

5/5 Orsy, Toward a Theological Evaluation of Communal Discernment (Oct. 1973) 
6/3 Knight, Joy and Judgment in Religious Obedience (Apr. 1974) 
7/1 Wright, Ganss, Orsy, On Thinking with the Church Today (Jan. 1975) 
7/2 Ganss, Christian Life Communities from the Sodalities (Mar. 1975) 
7/3 Connolly, Contemporary Spiritual Direction: Scope and Principles (June 1975) 
7/5 Buckley, The Confirmation of a Promise; Padberg, Continuity and Change in General 

Congregation XXXII (Nov. 1975) 
8/1 O'Neill, Acatamiento: Ignatian Reverence (Jan. 1976) 
8/2-3 De la Costa, Sheridan, and others, On Becoming Poor: A Symposium on Evangelical Poverty 
(Mar.-May 1976) 
8/4 Faricy, Jesuit Community: Community of Prayer (Oct. 1976) 
9/1-2 Becker, Changes in U.S. Jesuit Membership, 1958-75; Others, Reactions and Explanations 
(Jan.-Mar. 1977) 
9/4 Connolly, Land, Jesuit Spiritualities and the Struggle for Social Justice (Sept. 1977). 
9/5 Gill, A Jesuit's Account of Conscience (Nov. 1977) 

10/1 Kammer, "Burn-Out"— Dilemma for the Jesuit Social Activist (Jan. 1978) 
10/4 Harvanek, Status of Obedience in the Society of Jesus; Others, Reactions to Connolly-Land 

(Sept. 1978) 
11/1 Clancy, Feeling Bad about Feeling Good (Jan. 1979) 

11/2 Maruca, Our Personal Witness as Power to Evangelize Culture (Mar. 1979) 
11/3 Klein, American Jesuits and the Liturgy (May 1979) 
11/5 Conwell, The Kamikaze Factor: Choosing Jesuit Ministries (Nov. 1979) 
12/2 Henriot, Appleyard, Klein, Living Together in Mission: A Symposium on Small Apostolic 

Communities (Mar. 1980) 
12/3 Conwell, Living and Dying in the Society of Jesus (May 1980) 
12/4-5 Schineller, Newer Approaches to Christology and Their Use in the Spiritual Exercises (Sept. -Nov. 
1980) 



13/1 Peter, Alcoholism in Jesuit Life Qan. 1981) 

13/3 Ganss, Towards Understanding the Jesuit Brothers' Vocation (May 1981) 

13/4 Reites, St. Ignatius of Loyola and the Jews (Sept. 1981) 

14/1 O'Malley, The Jesuits, St. Ignatius, and the Counter Reformation Qan. 1982) 

14/2 Dulles, St. Ignatius and Jesuit Theological Tradition (Mar. 1982) 

14/4 Gray, An Experience in Ignatian Government (Sept. 1982) 

14/5 Ivern, The Future of Faith and Justice: Review of Decree Four (Nov. 1982) 

15/1 O'Malley, The Fourth Vow in Its Ignatian Context (Jan. 1983) 

15/2 Sullivan and Faricy, On Making the Spiritual Exercises for Renewal of Jesuit Charisms (Mar. 

1983) 

15/3-4 Padberg, The Society True to Itself A Brief History of the 32nd General Congregation of the 

Society of Jesus (May-Sept. 1983) 

15/5-16/1 Tetlow, Jesuits' Mission in Higher Education (Nov. 1983-Jan. 1984) 

16/2 O'Malley, To Travel to Any Part of the World: Jeronimo Nadal and the Jesuit Vocation (Mar. 

1984) 

16/3 O'Hanlon, Integration of Christian Practices: A Western Christian Looks East (May 1984) 

16/4 Carlson, "A Faith Lived Out of Doors": Ongoing Formation (Sept. 1984) 

16/5 Kinerk, Eliciting Great Desires: Their Place in the Spirituality of the Society of Jesus (Nov. 1984) 

17/1 Spohn, St. Paul on Apostolic Celibacy and the Body of Christ (Jan. 1985) 

17/2 Daley, "In Ten Thousand Places": Christian Universality and the Jesuit Mission (Mar. 1985) 

17/3 Tetlow, Dialogue on the Sexual Maturing of Celibates (May 1985) 

17/4 Spohn, Coleman, Clarke, Henriot, Jesuits and Peacemaking (Sept. 1985) 

17/5 Kinerk, When Jesuits Pray: A Perspective on the Prayer of Apostolic Persons (Nov. 1985) 

18/1 Gelpi, The Converting Jesuit (Jan. 1986). 

18/2 Beirne, Compass and Catalyst: The Ministry of Administration. (Mar. 1986) 

18/3 McCormick, Bishops as Teachers and Jesuits as Listeners (May 1986) 

18/5 Tetlow, The Transformation of Jesuit Poverty (Nov. 1986). 

19/1 Staudenmaier, United States Technology and Adult Commitment (Jan. 1987) 

19/2 Appleyard, Languages We Use: Talking about Religious Experience (Mar. 1987) 

19/5 Endean, Who Do You Say Ignatius Is? Jesuit Fundamentalism and Beyond (Nov. 1987) 

20/1 Brackley, Downward Mobility: Social Implications of St. Ignatius 's Two Standards (Jan. 1988) 

20/2 Padberg, How We Live Where We Live (Mar. 1988) 

20/3 Hayes, Padberg, Staudenmaier, Symbols, Devotions, and Jesuits (May 1988) 

20/4 McGovern, Jesuit Education and Jesuit Spirituality (Sept. 1988) 

20/5 Barry, Jesuit Formation Today: An Invitation to Dialogue and Involvement (Nov. 1988) 

21/1 Wilson, Where Do We Belong? United States Jesuits and Their Memberships Qan. 1989) 

21/2 Demoustier, Calvez, et al., The Disturbing Subject: The Option for the Poor (Mar. 1989) 

21/3 Soukup, Jesuit Response to the Communication Revolution (May 1989) 

22/1 Carroll, The Spiritual Exercises in Everyday Life Qan. 1990) 

22/2 Bracken, Jesuit Spirituality from a Process Prospective (March 1990) 

22/3 Shepherd, Fire for a Weekend: An Experience of the Exercises (May 1990) 

22/4 O'Sullivan, Trust Your Feelings, but Use Your Head (Sept. 1990) 

22/5 Coleman, A Company of Critics: Jesuits and the Intellectual Life (Nov. 1990) 

23/1 Houdek, The Road Too Often Traveled Qan. 1991) 

23/2 DiGiacomo, Ministering to the Young (March 1991) 

23/3 Begheyn and Bogart, A Bibliography on St. Ignatius's Spiritual Exercises (May 1991) 

23/4 Shelton, Reflections on the Mental Health of Jesuits (Sept. 1991) 



23/5 Toolan, "Nature Is a Heraclitean Fire" (Nov. 1991) 

24/1 Houdek, Jesuit Prayer and Jesuit Ministry: Context and Possibilities (Jan. 1992) 

24/2 Smolich, Testing the Water: Jesuits Accompanying the Poor (March 1992) 

24/3 Hassel, Jesus Christ Changing Yesterday, Today, and Forever (May 1992) 

24/4 Shelton, Toward Healthy Jesuit Community Living (Sept. 1992) 

24/5 Cook, Jesus' Parables and the Faith That Does Justice (Nov. 1992) 

25/2 Donahue, What Does the Lord Require? (March 1993)— ONCE AGAIN AVAILABLE 

25/3 Padberg, Ignatius, the Popes, and Realistic Reverence (May 1993) 

25/4 Stahel, Toward General Congregation 34 (Sept. 1993) 

25/5 Baldovin, Christian Liturgy: An Annotated Bibliography (Nov. 1993) 

26/1 Tetlow, The Most Postmodern Prayer (Jan. 1994) 

26/2 Murphy, The Many Ways of Justice (March 1994) 

26/3 Staudenmaier, To Fall in Love with the World (May 1994) 

26/4 Foley, Stepping into the River (Sept. 1994) 

26/5 Landy, Myths That Shape Us (Nov. 1994) 

27/1 Daley, "To Be More like Christ" (Jan. 1995) 

27/2 Schmidt, Portraits and Landscapes (March 1995) 

27/3 Stockhausen, I'd Love to, but I Don't Have the Time (May 1995) 

27/4 Anderson, Jesuits in Jail, Ignatius to the Present (Sept. 1995) 

27/5 Shelton, Friendship in Jesuit Life (Nov. 1995) 

28/1 Begheyn, Bibliography on the History of the Jesuits (Jan. 1996) 

28/2 Veale, Saint Ignatius Speaks about "Ignatian Prayer" (March 1996) 

28/3 Clooney, In Ten Thousand Places, in Every Blade of Grass (May 1996) 

28/4 Starkloff, "As Different As Night and Day" (Sept. 1996) 

28/5 Beckett, Listening to Our History (Nov. 1996) 

29/1 Hamm, Preaching Biblical Justice (Jan. 1997) 

29/2 Padberg, The Three Forgotten Founders (March 1997) 

29/3 Byrne, Jesuits and Parish Ministry (May 1997) 

29/4 Keenan, Are Informations Ethical? (Sept. 1997) 

29/5 Ferlita, The Road to Bethlehem-Is It Level or Winding? (Nov. 1997) 

30/1 Shore, The Vita Christi of Ludolph of Saxony and Its Influence on the Spiritual Exercises of 

Ignatius of Loyola (Jan. 1998) 

30/2 Starkloff, "I'm No Theologian, but . . . (or So . . . )?" (March 1998) 

30/3 Torrens, The Word That Clamors (May 1998) 

30/4 Petrik, "Being Sent" (Sept. 1998) 

30/5 Jackson, "One and the Same Vocation" (Nov. 1998) 

31/1 Clifford, Scripture and the Exercises (Jan. 1999) 

31/2 Toohig, Physics Research, a Search for God (March 1999) 

31/3 Fagin, Fidelity in the Church— Then and Now (May 1999) 

31/4 Schineller, Pilgrim Journey of Ignatius (Sept. 1999) 

31/5 Fullam, Juana, S.J.: Status of Women in the Society (Nov. 1999) 

32/1 Langan, The Good of Obedience in a Culture of Autonomy (Jan. 2000) 

32/2 Blake, Listen with Your Eyes (March 2000) 

32/3 Shelton, When a Jesuit Counsels Others (May 2000) 

32/4 Barry, Past, Present, and Future (Sept. 2000) 

32/5 Starkloff, Pilgrimage Re-envisioned (Nov. 2000) 

33/1 Kolvenbach et al., Faith, Justice, and American Jesuit Higher Education (Jan. 2001) 



33/2 Keenan, Unexpected Consequences: Parsons's Christian Directory (March 2001) 

33/3 Arrupe, Trinitarian Inspiration of the Ignatian Charism (May 2001) 

33/4 Veale, Saint Ignatius Asks, "Are You Sure You Know Who I Am?" (Sept. 2001) 

33/5 Barry and Keenan, How Multicultural Are We? (Nov. 2001) 

34/1 Blake, "City of the Living God" (Jan. 2002) 

34/2 Clooney, A Charism for Dialog (March 2002) 

34/3 Rehg, Christian Mindfulness (May 2002) 

34/4 Brackley, Expanding the Shrunken Soul (Sept. 2002) 

34/5 Bireley, The Jesuits and Politics in Time of War (Nov. 2002) 

35/1 Barry, Jesuit Spirituality for the Whole of Life (Jan. 2003) 

35/2 Madden/Janssens, The Training of Ours in the Sacred Liturgy (March 2003) 

35/3 Marcouiller, Archbishop with an Attitude (May 2003) 

35/4 Modras, A Jesuit in the Crucible (Sept. 2003) 

35/5 Lucas, Virtual Vessels, Mystical Signs (Nov. 2003) 

36/1 Rausch, Christian Life Communities for Jesuit University Students? (Spring 2004) 



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